Footnotes from



p. 4, note 1: The few cases where Africans have invented their own alphabet or where a negro language has been written in Arabic characters need not be considered, as there is little likelihood of these scripts spreading further.


p. 5, note 1: A. N. Tucker, Suggestions for the Spelling of Transvaal Sesuto (p. 5).


p. 5, note 2: 'With the spread of religion over the world, the missionaries, usually educated men, have left, as has been said, examples of their erudition: but unfortunately they have shown little knowledge of typography, as is evidenced by the selection made by them of the miscellaneously accented characters with which they have unhappily endowed the scripts of many countries.' ‑Typographical Printing Surfaces, by Legros and Grant, 1916, p. 535.


'Our use to‑day of a large number of diacritical marks attests the persistent deficiencies of our alphabet. ‑‑ The Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading, by E. B. Huey, 1913, p. 222.


'However, all the systems of phonetic writing and marking, often most carefully worked out from the philological and logical points of view, have been conspicuously lacking in revision from the psychological and pedagogical sides.' Huey, p. 358.


'Too often, as in the working out of systems of phonetic spelling by philologists, a system excellent from the philological or logical standpoint has lacked fitness to the psychic or hygienic conditions involved in reading. ‑‑ Huey, p. 430.


p. 5, note 3: At the Language Conference at Rejaf (Sudan), 1928, it was authoritatively stated that experience in the schools of the Northern Sudan showed that about 50 per cent. of the diacritic marks were omitted in the writing of Arabic script.


p. 5, note 4: It may be mentioned here that there are now on the market typewriters of various makes containing the new letters recommended by the Institute. The difference in price between these and the ordinary typewriter is negligible. The Institute will gladly furnish further information about these machines.


p. 10, note 1: The sucking in is often very weak.


p. 12, note 1: In writing Zulu and Xosa, if x is retained to represent the lateral click, it has been suggested that χ be used to denote the 'velar fricative' (the Scotch loch‑sound).


p. 12, note 2: As between the French and .


p. 12, note 3: As between the French vowels in Beaune and bonne.


p. 22, note 1: In this sentence the symbol ɥ suggested by Tucker for 'front‑labialization' is used provisionally (see Section 2 (x), p. 12).


p. 23, note 1: In view of the fact that there are not many Swahili words containing ŋ immediately followed by a vowel, it is suggested that the sound‑group ŋg be represented by the spelling ng. It would be more consistent, from the point of view of the native, to write it ŋg, but the use of ng has the advantage of involving less change from the orthography hitherto used.