Angola (AO)

1.  Language information / Données sur les langues

1.1  Languages spoken / Langues parlées

a) Official / Officielle(s) :

Portuguese (the site L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde indicates this is de facto as there is no legislation re language status)

b) National, indigenous / Nationale(s), indigène(s) :

Koongo, Mbundu, Chokwe, Mbunda, Kwanyama (Oxikuanyama) (these are indicated by Ethnologue as "National or official languages" along with Portuguese. Per 1.a.1 above these may not be legislated.)

Ethnologue lists 41 living languages at

c) Relevant pages in the Major Languages section of this report / Pages appropriées dans la section de ce rapport sur les Langues principales :

Umbundu, Kongo, Chokwe/Ruund, Kimbundu, Kwanyama

1.2  Language policy / Politique de langue

a) Laws/legislation / Lois/législation :

The site L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde has a page on Angola at

b) Agencies / Agences :

Instituto de Línguas Nacionais (INL) is respsonsible for research on Kikongo, Kimbundu, Umbundu, Cokwe, Oshikwanyama, and Ngangela (Ntondo 1998)

Instituto National de línguas
Ministerio de educação
Rue Tavares de Carvalho, 124 LUANDA
(Source: UNESCO, 1985)

There was apparently an issue with the legal status of INL up until at least 2006 (Angola Press, 29 Aug. 2006). Need update & more info.

c) Languages in education/literacy / Langues dans l'éducation/l'alphabétisation :

Portuguese is the only language of instruction (L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde).

UNDP (2006) gives a literacy figure (without reference to which language[s]) of: 67.4%

1.3  Writing in national/indigenous languages / Ecriture en langues nationales/indigènes

a) Orthographies / Orthographes :

b) Print publications / Editions imprimées :

Michael C. Finley reports a "serious lack of the written word in national languages" including a dearth of learning materials

1.4  Other comments / Autre commentaire

Over 90% of Angolans speak Bantu languages as their first language (L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde).

National television features 5 minutes of news in each of the following languages: Kikongo, Kimbundu, Umbundu, Cokwe, Oshikwanyama (Ntondo 1998)

2.  ICT situation / Situation des TIC

2.1  Infrastructure / Infrastructure

a) Telephones / Téléphones :

  • Fixed lines:
    • Telephone mainlines per 1000 people: 6 (APC)
    • Telephones - main lines in use: 94,300 (2005) (CIA)
  • Mobile subscriptions:

b) Radio stations / Stations de radio :

c) Connectivity / Connectivité :

  • International internet bandwidth / Bande passante internationale d'internet :
  • ISPs / FSI :
  • Internet hosts : 2,525 (2006) (CIA)
  • Geographic coverage / Couverture géographique :

2.2  Computer & internet access / Accès aux ordinateurs et à l'internet

a) Computers & points of access / Ordinateurs et lieux d'accès :

  • Number of computers / Nombre d'ordinateurs: 6 per 1000 people (APC)
  • Cybercafés / Cybercafés:
  • Project telecentres / Télécentres de projets:
    • SchoolNet Africa has been involved in some efforts to equip some schools with computers and internet.

b) Internet / Internet :

  • Dial-up subscribers / Abonnés par ligne téléphonique :
  • Internet users / Utilisateurs de l'internet : 172,000 Internet users as of Mar/2005, 1.3% of the population, per ITU (Internet World Stats)

c) Other / Autre :

  • Digital Opportunity Index (DOI): 0.21 (ITU 2006); 0.23, ranked 138 (ITU 2007)
  • ICT Opportunity Index (ICT-OI?):
  • ICT Development Index (IDI):

2.3  ICT policy / Politique de TIC

Information on Angola's NICI (National Information and Communications Infrastructure) policy is available at &

The APC page, "ICT Policy in Angola" has some information and links:

"The Angolan government aims at raising USD 96 million, in the near future, for the implementation of Action Plan For Information Society, affirmed Friday, here, the co-ordinator of the National Information Technology Commission, Pedro Teta." (Angola Press Agency, 28 January 2006)

2.4  ICT4D/E & ICT training / TIC pour le développement/éducation, et formation en TIC

2.5  Resources / Ressources

  • AngoNet (project "to increase the capacity of non-profit, civic and development organisations working in Angola, through improved communications and information exchange")

3.  Localisation situation / Situation de localisation

3.1  Country web content / Contenu web du pays

Apparently there are not many locally generated websites.

3.2  Web content in indigenous languages / Contenu web en langues indigènes

(See also specific language pages.)

3.3  Software localisation / Localisation de logiciel

(See also specific language pages.)

3.4  Projects & organisations / Projets et organisations

3.5  Localisation policy / Politique de localisation

4.  References / Références

Angola Press Agency. "Gov't to Raise USD 96 Million for Information Society Plan." 28 January 2006.

______. "Debate On Preserving Of Vernacular Languages Joins Experts." 29 August 2006

APC, "ICT Policy in Algeria" Africa ICT Policy Monitor, ("Politiques de TIC en/au Angola," )

Balancing Act Africa. 2006. African Internet Country Profiles, Part 3, Southern and Central Africa. London: Balancing Act.

International Telecommunications Union (ITU). 2004. African Telecommunication Indicators 2004. Geneva: ITU.

______. 2006. World Information Society Report 2006. Geneva: ITU.

______. 2007. World Information Society Report 2007. Geneva: ITU.

Internet World Stats: Africa. 2006.

Leclerc, Jacques. L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, "Angola,"

Ntondo, Zavoni. 1998. "The Sociolinguistic Situation of Oshikwanyama in Angola." In K. Legère, ed. Cross-border languages : reports and studies, Regional Workshop on Cross-Border Languages, National Institute for Educational Development (NIED), Okahandja, 23-27 September 1996. Windhoek : Gamsberg Macmillan.

SIL International, Ethnologue: Languages of the World, "Languages of Angola,"

UNDP. 2006. ''Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis. Human Development Report 2006.'' New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). [Human development index Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older) (HDI) ]

UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Africa. 1985. African Community Languages and Their Use in Literacy and Education: A Regional Survey. Dakar: UNESCO.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), "The World Factbook: Angola,"

Vodafone. 2005. "Africa: The Impact of Mobile Phones." The Vodafone Policy Paper Series, Number 3, March 2005.

WikiEducator, "ICT4Africa/Country Report Angola,"

Wikipedia, "Communications in Angola,"

______, "Languages of Angola,"

______, "Línguas de Angola,"ínguas_de_Angola

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