Sudan - Soudan - السودان (SD)

1.  Language information / Données sur les langues

1.1  Languages spoken / Langues parlées

a) Official / Officielle(s) :

Standard Arabic and English are indicated in the 2005 constitution as "the official working languages of the national government." (Wikipedia)

b) National, indigenous / Nationale(s), indigène(s) :

Arabic is indicated in the 2005 constitution as "a widely-spoken national language in the Sudan." The constitution also states that "All indigenous languages of the Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted." (Wikipedia)

Native speakers of Sudanese Arabic are the largest group.

Ethnologue lists 76 living languages at

c) Relevant pages in the Major Languages section of this report / Pages appropriées dans la section de ce rapport sur les Langues principales :

Arabic, Bedawi, Nubian. There are also some Fula and Hausa speakers in Sudan.

1.2  Policy / Politique

a) Laws/legislation / Lois/législation :

The site L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde has a page on the Sudan at

b) Agencies / Agences :

Department of Sudanese & African Languages
Institute of African & Asian Studies
University of Khartoum
P.O. Box 32 - KHARTOUM
(Source: UNESCO, 1985)

c) Languages in education/literacy / Langues dans l'éducation/l'alphabétisation :

Literacy rate (figures are given without reference to which language[s]):

  • UNDP (2006) gives a literacy figure of: 60.9% (includes South Sudan)
  • Ethnologue gives a literacy figure of: 20% to 27% (includes South Sudan)

1.3  Writing in national/indigenous languages / Ecriture en langues nationales/indigènes

a) Orthographies / Orthographes :

The Arabic script is of course used for Arabic. Latin-based scripts may be used for some others (need more information)

A chart showing the Latin extended characters and diacritics used in some Sudanese & South Sudanese languages is available at

b) Print publications / Editions imprimées :

1.4  Other comments / Autre commentaire

2.  ICT situation / Situation des TIC

2.1  Infrastructure / Infrastructure

a) Telephones / Téléphones :

  • Fixed lines: Telephone mainlines: 14 per 1000 people (APC; accessed 2006) (includes South Sudan)
  • Mobile subscriptions: 650,000 (2.0 per 100 people) (ITU 2004 cited in Vodafone 2005) (includes South Sudan)

b) Radio stations / Stations de radio :

c) Connectivity / Connectivité :

  • International internet bandwidth / Bande passante internationale d'internet :
  • ISPs / FSI :
  • Geographic coverage / Couverture géographique :

2.2  Computer & internet access / Accès aux ordinateurs et à l'internet

a) Computers & points of access / Ordinateurs et lieux d'accès :

  • Number of computers / Nombre d'ordinateurs: 3.6 per 1000 people (APC; accessed 2006) (includes South Sudan)
  • Cybercafés / Cybercafés:
  • Project telecentres / Télécentres de projets:

b) Internet / Internet :

  • Dial-up subscribers / Abonnés par ligne téléphonique :
  • Internet users / Utilisateurs de l'internet : 1,140,000 Internet users as of Sept/05, 3.2% of the population, per ITU (Internet World Stats) (includes South Sudan)

c) Other / Autre :

  • Digital Opportunity Index (DOI): 0.19 (ITU 2006) (includes South Sudan)
  • ICT Development Index (IDI):

2.3  Policy / Politique

The APC page, "ICT Policy in Sudan" had some information and links:

2.4  ICT4D/E & ICT training / TIC pour le développement/éducation, et formation en TIC

2.5  Resources / Ressources

3.  Localisation situation / Situation de localisation

3.1  Country web content / Contenu web du pays

3.2  Web content in indigenous languages / Contenu web en langues indigènes

(See also specific language pages.)

3.3  Software localisation / Localisation de logiciel

(See also specific language pages.)

3.4  Projects & organisations / Projets et organisations

4.  References / Références

APC, "ICT Policy in Sudan," Africa ICT Policy Monitor,

International Telecommunications Union (ITU). 2006. World Information Society Report 2006. Geneva: ITU.

______. 2004. African Telecommunication Indicators 2004. Geneva: ITU.

Internet World Stats: Africa. 2006.

Leclerc, Jacques. L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, "Soudan,"

SIL International, Ethnologue: Languages of the World, "Languages of Sudan,"

Sudan, "The Interim National Constitution of the Republic of the Sudan,"

UNDP. 2006. ''Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis. Human Development Report 2006.'' New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). [Human development index Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older) (HDI) ]

UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Africa. 1985. African Community Languages and Their Use in Literacy and Education: A Regional Survey. Dakar: UNESCO.

Vodafone. 2005. "Africa: The Impact of Mobile Phones." The Vodafone Policy Paper Series, Number 3, March 2005.

Wikipedia, "Languages of Sudan,"

______, "Sudan,"

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