GIS

Geographic Information System. Software that permits visualizing and manipulating maps, associating data with places on the map, overlaying data, and analyzing various features of the combination.

A preeminent company in the GIS field is ESRI. There are FOSS GIS software packages that can be localised (such as GRASS).

GIS is a specialised technology, but the software is becoming more user-friendly. Its use is becoming more frequent in local development projects using participatory methodologies (see PPGIS).

References

"Guide to Geographic Information Systems" (an ESRI site), http://www.gis.com/

Wikipedia, "Geographic information system," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geographic_information_system

______, "Sistema de informação geográfica," http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistema_de_Informa%C3%A7%C3%A3o_Geogr%C3%A1fica

______, "Système d'information géographique," http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syst%C3%A8me_d%27information_g%C3%A9ographique