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PanAfriL10n - PanAfrLoc - Madagascar

Madagascar - Madagasikara (MG)

1.  Language information / Données sur les langues

1.1  Languages spoken / Langues parlées

a) Official / Officielle(s) :

Malagasy. French is also used de facto as an official language.

b) National, indigenous / Nationale(s), indigène(s) :

Several languages are spoken, but do not have official status.

Ethnologue lists 13 languages at http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=MG

c) Relevant pages in the Major Languages section of this report / Pages appropriées dans la section de ce rapport sur les Langues principales :


1.2  Language policy / Politique de langue

a) Laws/legislation / Lois/législation :

The site L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde has a page on Madagascar at http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/afrique/madagas.htm

b) Agencies / Agences :

Centre des Langues de l'Académie Nationale Malgache (CLAM), 45-47, Avenue de l'indépendance, Analakely Antananarivo 101 - MADAGASCAR

Two institutions "involved in or responsible for African Language research" in Madagascar (UNESCO 1985). Updated information is needed [has their place been taken by CLAM?]:

  • Faculté des Lettres, Université de Madagascar, B.P. 566 - TANANARIVE
  • Centre d'élaboration des programmes, Ministère de l'Education et des Affaires culturelles, TANANARIVE

c) Languages in education/literacy / Langues dans l'éducation/l'alphabétisation :

"In Madagascar, Malgache [Malagasy] was used as a medium of instruction from 1972 until 1992. French was reinstated in 1992. The country report indicated that the language changes had not been planned properly and the introduction of French very early in the school process tends to widen the socio-cultural gap between rural/urban and advantaged/disadvantaged children." (Shibeshi 2006)

UNDP (2006) gives a literacy figure (without reference to which language[s]) of: 70.7%

1.3  Writing in national/indigenous languages / Ecriture en langues nationales/indigènes

a) Orthographies / Orthographes :

Latin alphabet is used. Historically there was some use of the Arabic script for at least one variety of Malagasy.

b) Print publications / Editions imprimées :

UNESCO (1985) reported the following periodicals (name, frequency of publication, circulation, language). Updated information is needed:

  • Atrika, daily, 5,000, Malagasy
  • Basy - Vava, daily, 5,000, Malagasy
  • Imongo Vaovao, daily, 6,000, Malagasy
  • Madagascar Matin, daily, 14,000, 5/6 French 1/6 Malagasy
  • Maresaka, daily, 5,000, Malagasy
  • Journal officiel de la RDM, weekly, 4,100, Malagasy
  • Lakroa, weekly, 6,000, Malagasy/French
  • Vaovao, weekly, 12,000, Malagasy
  • Fokono Lona, monthly, 20,000, Malagasy
  • L 'Eclair, quarterly, 9,500, Malagasy/French

1.4  Other comments / Autre commentaire

2.  ICT situation / Situation des TIC

2.1  Infrastructure / Infrastructure

a) Telephones / Téléphones :

  • Fixed lines:
    • 60,000 (NTIC à Madagascar en 2004)
    • Telephone mainlines: 4 per 1000 people (APC)
  • Mobile subscriptions:
    • 150,000 (NTIC à Madagascar en 2004)
    • 280,000 (1.7 per 100 people) (ITU 2004 cited in Vodafone 2005)

b) Radio stations / Stations de radio :

c) Connectivity / Connectivité :

  • International internet bandwidth / Bande passante internationale d'internet : 6 Mbps (NTIC à Madagascar en 2004)
  • ISPs / FSI :
  • Geographic coverage / Couverture géographique :

2.2  Computer & internet access / Accès aux ordinateurs et à l'internet

a) Computers & points of access / Ordinateurs et lieux d'accès :

  • Number of computers / Nombre d'ordinateurs: 2.4 per 1000 people (APC)
  • Cybercafés / Cybercafés:
  • Project telecentres / Télécentres de projets:
    • "Telecentres communautaires Multiservices (TCM). Ce projet a pour objet l'accès aux TIC aux populations les plus défavorisées. TELMA pilote le projet : en 2004, 3 TCM sont opérationnels (Fort Dauphin, Maintirano et Ambilobe) et 112 télécentres sont prévus au programme." (NTIC à Madagascar en 2004)

b) Internet / Internet :

  • Dial-up subscribers / Abonnés par ligne téléphonique :
  • Internet users / Utilisateurs de l'internet : 90,000 Internet users as of Sept/05, 0.5% of the population, per ITU (Internet World Stats)

c) Other / Autre :

  • Digital Opportunity Index (DOI): 0.13 (ITU 2006)

2.3  ICT policy / Politique de TIC

The APC page, "ICT Policy in Madagascar," has some information and links:

2.4  ICT4D/E & ICT training / TIC pour le développement/éducation, et formation en TIC

2.5  Resources / Ressources

3.  Localisation situation / Situation de localisation

3.1  Country web content / Contenu web du pays

3.2  Web content in indigenous languages / Contenu web en langues indigènes

(See also specific language pages.)

3.3  Software localisation / Localisation de logiciel

(See also specific language pages.)

3.4  Projects & organisations / Projets et organisations

3.5  Localisation policy / Politique de localisation

4.  References / Références

APC, "ICT Policy in Madagascar," Africa ICT Policy Monitor, http://rights.apc.org/africa/index.shtml?apc=s21844e_1 ("Politiques de TIC en/au Madagascar," Observatoire des politiques des TIC en Afrique, http://afrique.droits.apc.org/index.shtml?apc=s21844e_1 )

Balancing Act Africa. 2005. African Internet Country Profiles, Part 2, East Africa. London: Balancing Act. http://www.balancingact-africa.com/profile2.html

International Telecommunications Union (ITU). 2006. World Information Society Report 2006. Geneva: ITU. http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/worldinformationsociety/2006/wisr-web.pdf

______. 2004. African Telecommunication Indicators 2004. Geneva: ITU.

Internet World Stats: Africa. 2006. http://internetworldstats.com/africa.htm

Leclerc, Jacques. L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, "Madagascar," http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/afrique/madagas.htm

"NTIC à Madagascar en 2004." 2004. http://www.madanight.com/viewarticle_235.htm

Shibeshi, Ayalew. 2006. "Education for rural people in Africa." Paris: FAO and UNESCO/IIEP.

SIL International, Ethnologue: Languages of the World, "Languages of Madagascar," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=MG

UNDP. 2006. ''Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis. Human Development Report 2006.'' New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). [Human development index Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older) (HDI) http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006/statistics/indicators/3.html ]

UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Africa. 1985. African Community Languages and Their Use in Literacy and Education: A Regional Survey. Dakar: UNESCO.

Vodafone. 2005. "Africa: The Impact of Mobile Phones." The Vodafone Policy Paper Series, Number 3, March 2005. http://www.vodafone.com/assets/files/en/GPP%20SIM%20paper.pdf

Wikipedia, "Madagascar," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madagascar

______, "Madagascar," http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madagascar

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