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PanAfriL10n - PanAfrLoc - MakuaLomwe

Makua, Lomwe

1.  Classification / Classification

Ethnologue? lists the classification of Makua and Lomwe as: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)

Ethnologue? lists another language called Lomwe in Malawi that is apparently not related

Makua is sometimes written Makhua.


2.  Where Spoken / Localisation géographique

Lomwe is spoken in the central belt of Mozambique north of the Zambezi, from the coast between Port Amelia and Angoche, westward to Lake Chilwa and Mlanje mountains, and into Malawi. (Webbook)


3.  Number of Speakers / Nombre de locuteurs

According to Ethnologue:

  • Chuwabu/Chwabo 786,715 (1997 census)
  • Lolo 150,000 (2002 SIL)
  • Lomwe 1,300,000 (1991)
  • Maindo 20,000 (2003)
  • Makua/Makhuwa 2,500,000 (1996)
  • Makhuwa-Marrevone 420,101 (2000 WCD)
  • Makhuwa-Meetto 800,000 in Mozambique (1997 census)
  • Makhuwa-Moniga 200,000 (2003 Kröger)
  • Makhuwa-Saka 200,000 (2003 Kröger)
  • Makhuwa-Shirima 500,000 (1996)
  • Manyawa 150,000 (1999)
  • Marenje 75,000 (1997 census)
  • Takwane 150,000 (1997 census)
  • Total all related languages: 7,251,816

4.  Dialect Survey / Enquête de dialecte

Although a detailed survey has not been published, Price (personal communication, 1985) points out that "the dialectal variation is considerable" within Lomwe, but he notes that Makua and Lomwe are dialects of the same language. (Webbook)

The following listings in Ethnologue appear to be related:

  • Chuwabu/Chwabo [Lexical similarity 78% between Chuwabo of Makusi District and Marrare]
    • Central Chuwabo
    • Nyaringa
    • Marale
    • Karungu
    • Maindo
  • Lolo [May be a dialect of Lomwe or Makhuwa. Close to Takwane]
  • Lomwe [Closest to Makhuwa, Chwabo]
  • Maindo [Lexical similarity 84% with Chwabo]
  • Makua/Makhuwa
    • Emwaja
    • Enaharra (Maharra, Nahara, Emathipane)
    • Enyara
    • Central Makua (Makhuwana, Makuana, Emakhuwana)
    • Empamela (Nampamela)
    • Enlai (Mulai)
  • Makhuwa-Marrevone
    • Makhuwana (Emakhuwana)
    • Naharra (Enaharra)
    • Enlai
    • Nampamela (Empamela)
  • Makhuwa-Meetto [Imeetto has 81% to 88% lexical similarity with Saka, 78% to 82% with Nahara, 78% to 80% with Makua, 66% to 68% with Lomwe]
  • Makhuwa-Moniga [Lexical similarity 56% with Lomwe]
  • Makhuwa-Saka [Lexical similarity 81% to 88% with Makhuwa-Meetto, 78% to 80% with Makhuwa]
    • Saka (Esaaka)
    • Rati (Erati)
  • Makhuwa-Shirima [Probably not intelligible with the Metto, Makhuwa, or Lomwe]
  • Manyawa [Close to Takwane. Lexical similarity 69% with Takwane]
  • Marenje [Related to Lolo and Kokola]
  • Takwane [Related to Manyawa]

5.  Usage / Utilisation

Makua and Lomwe are used largely as local languages. (Webbook)


6.  Orthography / Orthographe

6.1  Status / Statut

No standardized orthography currently exists for Makua/Lomwe, although differences between the dialects do not appear to present serious difficulties. (Webbook)

6.2  Sample Alphabet / Alphabet exemple

A table at http://www.bisharat.net/A12N/MozaSource.htm gives some information for "Emakhuwa" in Mozambique.

Sample texts are shown on the "Language Museum" site:


7.  Use in ICT / Utilisation dans les TIC

7.1  Fonts / Polices

7.2  Keyboard layouts / Dispositions de clavier

7.3  Content on computers & internet / Contenu en informatique et sur l'Internet

7.4  Localized software / Logiciels localisés

Not aware of any localisation efforts.

7.5  Language codes / Codes de langue

Lomwe

  • ISO 639-1: -
  • ISO 639-2: -
  • ISO 639-3: ngl

Makua/Makhuwa

  • ISO 639-1: -
  • ISO 639-2: -
  • ISO 639-3: vmw

Chuwabu

  • ISO 639-3: chw

Lolo

  • ISO 639-3: llb

Maindo

  • ISO 639-3: cwb

Makhuwa-Marrevone

  • ISO 639-3: xmc

Makhuwa-Meetto

  • ISO 639-3: mgh

Makhuwa-Moniga

  • ISO 639-3: mhm

Makhuwa-Saka

  • ISO 639-3: xsq

Makhuwa-Shirima

  • ISO 639-3: vmk

Manyawa

  • ISO 639-3: mny

Marenje

  • ISO 639-3: vmr

Takwane

  • ISO 639-3: tke

7.6  Other / Autre

Human Network International is reportedly working on localising a mobile phone interface in Makhuwa (2015)


8.  Localisation resources / Ressources pour localisation

8.1  Individuals (experts) / Individuelles (experts)

8.2  Institutions / Institutions

8.3  On the internet / Sur la toile


9.  Comments / Remarques


10.  References / Références

Dwyer, David (1997), Webbook of African Languages, http://africa.isp.msu.edu/afrlang/hiermenu.html (page on "Makua/Lomwe," http://africa.isp.msu.edu/afrlang/Makua_root.html )

SIL International, Ethnologue: Languages of the World, "Chuwabu," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/chw

______, "Lolo," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/llb

______, "Lomwe," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/ngl

______, "Maindo," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/cwb

______, "Makhuwa," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/vmw

______, "Makhuwa-Marrevone," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/xmc

______, "Makhuwa-Meetto," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/mgh

______, "Makhuwa-Moniga," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/mhm

______, "Makhuwa-Saka," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/xsq

______, "Makhuwa-Shirima," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/vmk

______, "Manyawa," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/mny

______, "Marenje," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/vmr

______, "Takwane," http://www.ethnologue.com/language/tke

SIL International, "ISO 639 Code Tables," http://www-01.sil.org/iso639-3/codes.asp

U.S. Library of Congress, "ISO 639.2: Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages: Alpha-3 codes arranged alphabetically by the English name of language," http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/English_list.php

Wikipedia, "Makhua language," https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makhua_language

______, "Makua languages," https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makua_languages


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Categories: Languages, Mozambique, Malawi