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PanAfriL10n - PanAfrLoc - UNESCOsListRevised

African Community Languages and Their Use in Education

Les langues communautaires africaines et leur utilisation dans l’enseignement

The list of 159 community languages produced by a UNESCO survey in 1985 was revised on a map, with an accompanying paper by Nigerian linguist Ayo Bamgbose, in 2004. The languages and accompanying data on the map have been reformatted and wikified in the table below.

Notes
The asterisk (*) indicates that the language is a
community language [in more than one country].
The figure which follows it indicates the number
of countries where it is considered as a community
language.
The numbers 1, 2 and 3 indicates first, second
and third levels of education respectively. The
letters M, S and P indicate respectively that a
language is used as medium of instruction, as a
subject of instruction only or in a pilot project

Notes
L’astérisque (*) indique que la langue est une langue
communautaire dans plus d’un pays. Le chiffre qui
suit l’astérisque indique le nombre de pays où cette
langue est une langue communautaire.
Les chiffres 1, 2, 3 indiquent respectivement les
niveaux primaire, secondaire et supérieur de
l’éducation. Les lettres M, S et P indiquent respec-
tivement que la langue est utilisée comme moyen
d’enseignement, comme matière seulement ou dans
le cadre d’un projet pilote

Language/Langue*123
Angola
Chokwe 1P  
Fiyote? 1P' 
Kikongo*31P  
Kimbundu 1P  
Kwanyama 1P  
Ngangela? 1P  
Umbundu 1P  
Benin/Bénin
Adja    
Aizo?    
Bariba    
Fon    
Gun    
Mahi?    
Fulfulde/Pulaar*10   
Somba?    
Sahue?    
Tori?    
Wama?    
Yoruba*2   
Zarma/Songhay*4   
Botswana
Setswana*21M2S3S
Burkina Faso
Dyula*21P 3S
Fulfulde/Pulaar*101P2S3S
Gurmantche?    
Moore 1P 3S
Burundi
Kirundi 1M2S3S
Kiswahili*7  3S
Cameroon/Cameroun
Banjun?    
Basaa?    
Creole*4   
Duala?    
Ewondo    
Fe’fe    
Fulfulde/Pulaar*10   
Maka?    
Bali?    
Cape Verde/Cap-Vert
Crioulo/Capverdien*4 2S 
Central African Rep./Rép. centrafricaine
Sango 1M 3S
Chad/Tchad
Barma? 1P 3S
Sara 1P 3S
Turu?    
Comoros/Comores
Comorien? 1M  
Congo (Dem. Rep./Rép. dém.)
Ciluba 1M2S3S
Kikongo*31M2S3S
Kiswahili*71M2S3S
Lingala*21M2S3S
Otela?    
Congo (Rep./Rép.)
Lingala*2  3S
Munukutuba*3  3S
Côte d'Ivoire
Baoule   3S
Bete?    
Dyula*2  3S
Mandinka*6  3S
Senufo   3S
Equatorial Guinea/Guinée équatoriale
Fernandino?*4   
Annobones?*4   
Fang*2   
Ethiopia/Ethiopie
Amharic/Amharigna 1M2S3S
Oromo/Oromigna    
Tigre?    
Tigrinya    
Wolaitinya?    
Gabon
Fang*2|   
Gambia/Gambie
Fulfulde/Pulaar*101P  
Mandinka*61P  
Wolof*31P  
Ghana
Akan 1M2S3S
Dagaare 1M  
Dagbani?    
Dangme? 1M  
Ewe*21M2S3S
Ga 1M2S3S
Gonja? 1M  
Gurenne?    
Hausa*3   
Kasem? 1M  
Konkomba?    
Kusaal?    
N’zema? 1M  
[[Sisala    
Guinea/Guinée
Fulfulde/Pulaar*101M2M 
Kisi? 1M2M 
Kpelle*21M2M 
Loma 1M2M 
Mandinka*61M2M 
Soso 1M2M 
Guinea-Bissau/Guinée-Bissau
Crioulo?*41P  
Kenya
Kalenjin 1M  
Kikamba 1M  
Kikuyu 1M  
Kiswahili*71M2S3S
Luluyia    
Luo*21M  
Lesotho
Sesotho 1M2S3S
Liberia/Libéria
Bassa?    
Belle? 1P  
Kpelle*21P  
Krahn? 1P  
Mandinka*6   
Vai 1P  
Madagascar
Malagasy 1M2M3S
Malawi
Chichewa 1M2S3S
Tumbuka    
Mali
Bambara 1M  
Dogon?    
Fulfulde/Pulaar*10   
Mandinka*6   
Soninke*3   
Tamashek*2   
Zarma/Songhay*4   
Mauritania/Mauritanie
Hassaniya?    
Fulfulde/Pulaar*101P  
Soninke*31P  
Wolof*31P  
Mauritius/Maurice
Bhojpuri/Hindi 1S  
Kreol/Mauricien*2   
Mozambique
Cipodzo?    
Ilomwe?    
Kiswahili*7   
Shitsonga    
Shona*2   
Namibia/Namibie
Ambo?    
Herero?    
Kwangali?    
Lozi*2   
Nama    
Setswana*2   
Niger
Fulfulde/Pulaar*101P2S3S
Hausa*31P2S3S
Kanuri*21P2S3S
Tamashek*21P2S3S
Zarma/Songhay*41P2S3S
Nigeria/Nigéria
Abua?    
Anaang    
Angas?    
Berom?    
Bura?    
Chamba-Daka?    
Duka?    
Ebira    
Edo 1M2S3S
Efik 1M2S 
Ekpeye?    
Esan?    
Fulfulde/Pulaar*101M2S3S
Gwari?    
Hausa*31M2S3S
Ibibio    
Idoma 1M2S 
Igala? 1M2S 
Igbo 1M2S3S
Igede?    
Ijo 1M2S 
Isoko?    
Kalabari?    
Kamuku?    
Kamwe?    
Kanuri*21M2S 
Lela?    
Mumuye?    
Nupe 1M2S 
Pidgin/Creole*4   
Reshe?    
Tiv 1M2S 
Urhobo?    
Yerkhee?    
Yoruba*21M2S3S
Zarma/Songhay*4   
Rwanda
Kinyarwanda? 1M2M3S
Kiswahili*7   
São Tomé and Principe/Sao Tomé et Principe
Saotomense?*4   
Senegal/Sénégal
Joola? 1P  
Fulfulde/Pulaar*101P  
Mandinka*6   
Seereer 1P  
Soninke*3   
Wolof*31P 3S
Seychelles
Kreol/Seychellois*21M  
Sierra Leone
Krio/Creole*41P  
Limba? 1P  
Mende 1P  
Temne 1P  
Somalia/Somalie
Somali 1M2M3S
South Africa
Sepedi    
Sesotho 1M2S3S
Setswana 1M2S3S
Siswati    
Tshivenda  2S3S
Xitsonga    
isiNdebele   3S
isiXhosa 1P/1M2S3S
isiZulu  2S3S
Sudan/Soudan
Bari? 1M 3S
Besa? 1M 3S
Dinka 1M 3S
Moru? 1M 3S
Nuer    
Zande 1M 3S
Kiswahili*7  3S
Nubian 1M 3S
Swaziland
Siswati 1M2S3S
Tanzania/Tanzanie
Kiswahili*71M2S3S
Togo
Ewe*21M2S 
Kabye? 1M2S 
Uganda/Ouganda
Ateso 1M  
Kiswahili*71P2S3S
Luganda 1M2S3S
Lugbara? 1M  
Luo*21M  
Runyankore 1M  
Ruchiga    
Rutoro 1M  
Zambia/Zambie
Bemba 1S2S3S
Kaonde? 1S  
Lozi*21S2S3S
Lunda? 1S  
Luvale? 1S  
Nyanja 1S2S3S
Tonga 1S2S3S
Zimbabwe
Ndebele 1M2S3S
Shona*21M2S3S

PanAfrLoc Notes:

  • North Africa was outside the scope of this survey.
  • Djibouti, Eritrea, and Reunion are not included.
  • Bari, Dinka, Moru, Nuer, & Zande would be mapped to South Sudan which was not an independent country at the time of this revision.
  • The English version of the notes that came with the map (featured here near the top of the page, above) was missing an important phrase, which was added in [brackets] with reference to the French version.

Lists of African languages