Zande - Pazande

1.  Classification / Classification

Zande is a language of the Ubangi subgroup of Adamawa-Ubangi. (Webbook?)

Ethnologue? lists the classification as: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara

2.  Where Spoken / Localisation géographique

It is spoken in southeastern Central African Republic (CAR), southwestern Sudan, and northern Dem. Rep. of Congo. (Webbook)

3.  Number of Speakers / Nombre de locuteurs

According to Ethnologue:

  • 730,000 in DRC
  • 350,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL)
  • 62,000 in CAR (1996)
  • Population total all countries: 1,142,000

4.  Dialect Survey / Enquête de dialecte

No thorough dialect survey is known to us as of this writing. IRL (?) is preparing literacy materials based on Zande spoken around Yambio. Later tests of the materials are planned to determine whether other dialect sets would be necessary. (Webbook)

5.  Usage / Utilisation

Zande is a local first language.

6.  Orthography / Orthographe

6.1  Status / Statut

An orthography was established for Zande at the 1928 Rejaf Language Conference. Past materials have not consistently marked vowel quality and nasalization; present efforts include these as well as tone on the tense particles (Duerksen, personal communication, 1983). (Webbook)

[need more & updated information!]

6.2  Sample Alphabet / Alphabet exemple

Alphabet (in CAR) as reported by Hartell (1993) and presented in Systèmes alphabétiques:

A text sample is shown on the "Language Museum" site:

7.  Use in ICT / Utilisation dans les TIC

7.1  Fonts / Polices

7.2  Keyboard layouts / Dispositions de clavier

7.3  Content on computers & internet / Contenu en informatique et sur l'Internet

7.4  Localized software / Logiciels localisés

None known.

7.5  Language codes / Codes de langue

"Zande (generic)"

  • ISO 639-1: -
  • ISO 639-2: znd
  • ISO 639-3: -

"Zande (specific)"

  • ISO 639-1: -
  • ISO 639-2: -
  • ISO 639-3: zne

7.6  Locales / Paramètres régionaux

7.7  Other / Autre

8.  Localisation resources / Ressources pour localisation

8.1  Individuals (experts) / Individuelles (experts)

8.2  Institutions / Institutions

8.3  On the internet / Sur la toile

9.  Comments / Remarques

10.  References / Références

Chanard, Christian (2006), Systèmes alphabétiques des langues africaines, LLACAN, CNRS,

Dwyer, David (1997), Webbook of African Languages, (page on "Zande," )

Hartell, Rhonda L., ed. (1993), The Alphabets of Africa. Dakar: UNESCO and SIL. (The French edition, published the same year, is entitled Alphabets de Langues Africaines).

SIL International, Ethnologue: Languages of the World, "Zande,"

SIL International, "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: znd,"

______, "ISO 639 Code Tables,"

U.S. Library of Congress, "ISO 639.2: Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages: Alpha-3 codes arranged alphabetically by the English name of language,"

Wikipedia, "Zande language,"

______, "Zande languages,"

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Categories: Languages, CongoDemRep, South Sudan, Eastern CAR