Chad - Tchad - تشاد (TD)

1.  Language information / Données sur les langues

1.1  Languages spoken / Langues parlées :

a) Official / Officielle(s) :

French and Standard Arabic, as stipulated in the constitution (Aménagement linguistique)

b) National, indigenous / Nationale(s), indigène(s) :

Chadian Arabic (dialect) in the north and Sara in the south are of particular importance. Kanembu, which is closely related to Kanuri, is spoken near Lake Chad. Sango is apparently used in the border areas with CAR.

Ethnologue has an extensive list at

c) Relevant pages in the Major Languages section of this report / Pages appropriées dans la section de ce rapport sur les Langues principales :

Arabic, Sara, Kanuri (Kanembu), Sango

1.2  Language policy / Politique de langue :

a) Laws/legislation / Lois/législation :

The site L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde has a page on Chad at

b) Agencies / Agences :

Four institutions "involved in or responsible for African Language research" in Chad (UNESCO 1985). Updated information is needed:

  • Département d'etudes linguistiques Université du Tchad N'DJAMENA
  • Centre d'etudes linguistiques Collège Charles Lwanga - SAHR
  • Institut national des sciences humaines (INSH) N'DJAMENA
  • Société internationale de linguistique (SIL)

c) Languages in education/literacy / Langues dans l'éducation/l'alphabétisation :

UNDP (2006) gives a literacy figure (without reference to which language[s]) of: 25.7%

1.3  Writing in national/indigenous languages / Ecriture en langues nationales/indigènes :

a) Orthographies / Orthographes :

Arabic naturally is written in the Arabic script. The languages of the south are written in Latin script with some modified letters (extended characters). A chart showing the extended Latin characters and diacritics used in some Chadian languages is available at:

b) Print publications / Editions imprimées :

1.4  Other comments / Autre commentaire :

2.  ICT situation / Situation des TIC

2.1  Infrastructure / Infrastructure

a) Telephones / Téléphones :

  • Fixed lines:
    • Telephone mainlines: 1 per 1000 people (APC)
    • Telephones - main lines in use: 13,000 (2004) (CIA)
  • Mobile subscriptions:

b) Radio stations / Stations de radio :

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2002) (CIA)

c) Connectivity / Connectivité :

  • International internet bandwidth / Bande passante internationale d'internet :
  • ISPs / FSI :
  • Internet hosts :
    • According to CIA, 9 (2006)
    • According to ISC, 5 on .cm domain (2007)
  • Geographic coverage / Couverture géographique :

2.2  Computer & internet access / Accès aux ordinateurs et à l'internet

a) Computers & points of access / Ordinateurs et lieux d'accès :

  • Number of computers / Nombre d'ordinateurs: 1.6 per 1000 people (APC)
  • Cybercafés / Cybercafés:
  • Project telecentres / Télécentres de projets:

b) Internet / Internet :

  • Dial-up subscribers / Abonnés par ligne téléphonique :
  • Internet users / Utilisateurs de l'internet : 35,000 Internet users as of Sept/06, 0.4% of the population, per ITU (Internet World Stats)

c) Other / Autre :

  • Digital Opportunity Index (DOI): 0.01 (ITU 2006); 0.04, ranked 180 (ITU 2007)
  • ICT Opportunity Index (ICT-OI?):
  • ICT Development Index (IDI):

2.3  ICT policy / Politique de TIC

According to the NICI policy page (ref immediately below) and WikiEducator, "There is no formal ICT policy in Chad." (5-2007)

Information on Chad's NICI (National Information and Communications Infrastructure) policy process is available at:

The APC page, "ICT Policy in Chad" has some information and links:

2.4  ICT4D/E & ICT training / TIC pour le développement/éducation, et formation en TIC

WikiEducator has information and a table on enabling and constraining factors for ICTs in education at

2.5  Resources / Ressources

Institut Africain d'Informatique (IAI), Cameroon (also serves Chad)

3.  Localisation situation / Situation de localisation

3.1  Country web content / Contenu web du pays

3.2  Web content in indigenous languages / Contenu web en langues indigènes

(See also specific language pages.)

3.3  Software localisation / Localisation de logiciel

Not aware of any software localization activities.

(See also specific language pages.)

3.4  Projects & organisations / Projets et organisations

3.5  Localisation policy / Politique de localisation

4.  References / Références

APC, "ICT Policy in Chad," Africa ICT Policy Monitor, ("Politiques de TIC en/au Tchad," Observatoire des politiques des TIC en Afrique, )

International Telecommunications Union (ITU). 2004. African Telecommunication Indicators 2004. Geneva: ITU.

______. 2006. World Information Society Report 2006. Geneva: ITU.

______. 2007. World Information Society Report 2007. Geneva: ITU.

Internet Systems Consortium (ISC), "Distribution of Top-Level Domain Names by Host Country, Jan 2007"

Internet World Stats: Africa. 2007.

Leclerc, Jacques. L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, "Tchad,"

SIL International, Ethnologue: Languages of the World, "Languages of Chad,"

UNDP. 2006. ''Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis. Human Development Report 2006.'' New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). [Human development index Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older) (HDI) ]

UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Africa. 1985. African Community Languages and Their Use in Literacy and Education: A Regional Survey. Dakar: UNESCO.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), "The World Factbook: Chad,"

Vodafone. 2005. "Africa: The Impact of Mobile Phones." The Vodafone Policy Paper Series, Number 3, March 2005.

WikiEducator, "ICT4Africa/Country Report Chad,"

Wikipedia, "Communications in Chad,"

______, "Languages of Chad,"

< Central African Republic | Countries | Comoros >